A concept, of a master plan to connect the Salloum plateau and the Sidi Barrani area with its deep extension in the Western Sahara to become a world tourist port to serve as a focal point for a number of major maritime tourism companies, logistic and educational areas and a port to become a destination for tourists coming to Africa from various Mediterranean countries, is designed to serve the ultimate goal of resettling 30 million people along the railway lines that will be built deep in the Western Sahara to reach these countries with the establishment of a unified electrical network and to avoid the problems of marginalization and lack of resources in the countries passing through the railways, DESERTEC project in accordance with our specifications, It has a large tourism, commercial and industrial economy, relying on new and renewable energy (solar wind) and has the first Egyptian renewable energy college. Finally, With the integration of these projects, these countries will have a large industrial, tourism and commercial economy, relying on new and renewable energy (solar, wind, water, etc.) with the establishment of international universities serving these activities and investments. The study is based on a fundamental problem, namely, interruptions of land transportation between countries. The study is based on a structure in which it attempts to investigate this problem and analyze the causes that affect the characteristics of the climate, the characteristics of the transportation and the characteristics variations and effects of peoples. With the completion of the development of the concept presented through the historical approach to trace ancient trade routes across Egypt and Africa before the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope.
Why this Approach.
Statistics indicate that 90 percent of imports and exports in Africa are driven by sea. With a global middle class set to reach five billion people by 2030, global trade is set to continue to grow at an unprecedented rate. Reports suggest that the global freighter fleet is expected to double over the next decade due to growing consumption demands of the ever-increasing middle class.
If the Marshall Plan was developed as an economic project for the reconstruction of Europe after the end of the Second World War, it resulted in the destruction of the European economy and its collapse and depression to a large and deep, leading to widespread poverty and unemployment, through a body set up by Western European governments to oversee spending more than 13 Billion dollars under the name of “Organization for Economic Cooperation and European” to contribute to the funds in the reconstruction and operation of the economy and European factories.
The project, which is one of the axes of the Africa pass project, which from the point of view of the researcher is the Marshall Plan Africa, which will contribute to avoid the consequences of wars and conflicts and tension in African relations, especially in the region of the Nile Valley to contribute to the reconstruction of African countries along the path and the revival and operation of the economy through Tourism, energy and infrastructure associated with the project.
As the world is heading into the 21st century into the world of major entities, whether politically, economically or socially, and other areas of life, it is becoming increasingly common to establish a railway network to link the world to the creation of knowledge cities, giant trains, aircraft and giant ships. Will fail to connect itself to this network and turn it into paths that serve the interests of its people first will happen between them and the developed world a cultural gap back to the world to become masters and slaves. God has given Egypt a unique and unique geographic location between the continents of the world, which some considered natural and political capital and an original source of the national wealth of Egypt. This has always been along the length of time. Egypt was the main corridor of convoys and goods. He was the head of good hope for Egypt’s role in the course of world trade, but this role emerged again, and Egypt once again became the trade and traffic center between the East and the West, both land and sea, with the opening of the Suez Canal for international trade on 17 November 1869.
The magnificent Jamal Hamdan described this position specifically by saying that the Suez Canal was the largest reduction factor in the geography of maritime transport and reoriented the continents and returned the topographical values. In a relatively small geographical laboratory that reduced the entire continent of Africa and captured the road of Cape of Good Hope and re-established the east of North Africa and Egypt at the heart of the world. Focus the map again. It can be said that the channel brought life back to the geographical location of Egypt genius, where it became the center of work in the global trade movement, which benefited the whole world east and west, and Egypt, owner of the site and the channel did not benefit economically directly and influential.
According to the definition of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), international tourism includes the activities of individuals to travel to places outside their usual and permanent residence and stay for up to 12 months to spend pleasant times, doing business or other purposes. Based on this general definition, the tourism industry includes all social and economic activities that are directly or indirectly linked to the provision of goods and services to tourists. In this regard, the World Tourism Organization has identified 185 supply-side activities with important links to the tourism sector. These include services such as transportation, communications, hotels, accommodation, food and beverage, cultural and entertainment services, banking and financial services, promotion and advertising services. With this vast network of social and economic activities and infrastructure to support them, tourism is one of the largest sectors in the world and an important component of international trade.
Over the past few decades, international tourism activity has grown steadily, both in terms of tourism revenues and the number of foreign tourists. This has resulted in extensive economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts to the world. International tourism also generates enormous economic benefits for both host countries and their countries of residence. According to the World Tourism Organization, the number of international tourist arrivals rose from 998 million registered in 2011 to 1235 million in 2016, an average annual growth rate of 4.4%. During the same period, revenues from tourism, 1073 billion dollars to 1220 billion, at current prices of the US dollar, an average annual growth rate of 2.6%. World tourism revenues in 2016 averaged $ 3.34 billion a day, equivalent to $ 988 per tourist. The importance of energy is therefore one of the most important means of realizing the aspirations of peoples for a better future as the main engine of economic and social development plans, which are closely linked to the availability of durable and adequate supplies of energy.
The Egyptian government has set a national goal to transform Egypt into a pivotal center for energy trading and trading. A higher committee was set up to manage this issue. The committee will be charged with developing a vision for transforming Egypt into a regional center for energy trading and trading. Egypt has several investment opportunities in the electricity sector in all its fields, including generating electricity from renewable energies, strengthening and modernizing transmission and distribution of Electricity networks.
Beyond fulfilling their respective countries’ trade needs, ports act as gateways to land-locked countries such as Ethiopia and Chad, that have significant agricultural and raw materials export potential, and great need for imports of finished and processed goods from the East and West. Without these gateways, land locked countries that have much to offer in world trade are figuratively closed for shop.
There have been many African experiences towards economic integration to the extent that many countries belong to more than one group at the same time, and this reality has created a situation of complexity of the integration process in its comprehensive sense, for many reasons the most important overlap of membership and obligations, and the lack of coordination between these organizations, Which is the reason for the modest achievement achieved in any of these gatherings so far in the areas of regional trade and economic growth. However, this does not mean that some cases have succeeded in achieving some of the objectives. For example, the Southern African Customs Union has made significant progress in liberalizing the factors of production through the removal of trade and customs barriers between the member countries of the Union, and the Western Economic and Monetary Union Africa to establish a macroeconomic policy system through the establishment of a common accounting structure that is regularly reviewed by Member States in addition to the establishment of a securities market. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) succeeded in raising the volume of inter-market trade from $ 3.1 billion in 2000 to $ 12.7 billion in 2009 and then to $ 17.4 billion in 2010.
Inter-trade in the East African Community increased by 49 percent after the launch of the Customs Union. But the overall trend remains modest in the achievements of the regional phenomenon in Africa.
Perhaps the most important reason for the low level of regional integration in Africa is the lack of diversity, weak infrastructure, tariff and non-tariff barriers, and other challenges. The present paper therefore seeks to assess the progress made in regional economic integration in the continent and to identify best practices in this regard.
One of the major challenges facing African infrastructure development is the lack of adequate funding. The World Bank estimates that annual investment in infrastructure requirements in Africa is estimated at US $ 93 billion over the past 10 years. The World Bank, the European Union, the African Development Bank and other financial agencies need to increase their funding for infrastructure development in Africa, where African governments lack the financial capacity to do so.
In spite of these attempts to integrate in the various economic fields mentioned above, unfortunately, there is no attempt to integrate in the areas of tourism and energy among the countries of Africa, each country seeks to acquire the highest proportion of tourists individually and also trying to evaluate energy projects for its benefit only without Integrated with other countries, as if the concept of cooperation applies only to intra-trade and does not apply to the tourism and energy sectors.
For example, the African countries are trying to attract investment in the construction of roads to facilitate the transit of goods between countries and not to facilitate the passage of inter-tourism to visitors from other countries and also does not establish electrical networks with the surrounding countries to contribute to the transfer of electricity, whether surplus from Need or compensate for their shortfall in producing enough energy.
Each country has set its sights on how to acquire the highest proportion of world tourism without considering their participation in neighboring countries.
In view of the current energy and tourism situation in the African countries, the important question is how do these countries increase their sources of energy while developing their resources from the tourism sector to raise their share to the global ratio? And what are the most important obstacles to the development of the tourism sector and the energy sector? The paper will try to answer these questions by introducing the concept of integration and the development of a strategic plan for an integrated project to avoid these obstacles.
The adoption of research on a new method is unusual in the patterns of international tourism only in the marine tourism sector so it is difficult to get integrated data.
The researcher should develop his or her own vision as a proposal for implementation by the different parties, leading to the researcher’s perception of the potential data in case of implementation based on the data available in the current situation.
The lack of water resources and water conflicts that have resulted from our distance from the Nile Basin countries in Central Africa and the intervention of many actors to put obstacles and crises among the peoples of the region.
Poor distribution of population, unemployment, energy problems and the consequences of many of the obstacles to development.
Concern for development priorities within the borders of the state and not to look at long-term development plans for Africa integrated.
The study provides a model for participating countries to tourists coming to Africa from abroad so that the incoming tourist can visit a number of countries mentioned in the study instead of one country, during his stay, which may extend in this case to 2 or 3 weeks or more depending on the development of appropriate infrastructure and facilities available, As well as linking the electricity networks of countries to a unified ne