Engineering opportunities and capacity building in energy development
Joseph K. Njoroge- Principal Secretary, Ministry of Energy and Petroleum
Access to modern affordable energy services in developing countries is paramount for the achievement of UN Millennium Development Goals(MDG) and sustainable development, which would reduce poverty and improve conditions and standards of living for the majority of the world’s population.Endemic low per-capita consumption of energy is both a cause and consequence of Africa’s prolonged poor socio-economic performance since the first oil shock in the early 1970s. This is particularly so in oil-importing Sub-Sahara African countries.
The low installed capacity in many developing countries is a reflection of an economy which is largely dependent on rain fed agriculture and associated primary commodities as a major driver of the domestic economy. To significantly increase growth in the industrial sector developing countries will require increased power generation to levels that will guarantee competitively priced, secure and quality power. This will reduce the relative contribution of rain-fed agriculture to GDP. This power generation development scenario should focus on exploitation of green energy sources and avail adequate energy for intensive manufacturing. It will also grow the services sector. Both of these have a high potential of creating jobs and wealth to absorb the rising labour force from all levels of the educations system.
The objective of achieving universal access to energy by 2030 must be addressed as an utmost priority by the international community. Achieving universal access would require an international commitment to create the foundations for a common path to meet the intertwined energy, development and climate challenges.All countries must be able to meet their energy needs in a reliable and sustainable manner. Unreliable power or fuel shortages are very costly for African economies. Increased use of local renewable energy, improved energy efficiency, as well as regional integration can make energy supply more reliable.
The Mandate of the Ministry of Energy is to provide clean, sustainable, competitive, affordable, reliable and secure energy services at least cost while protecting the environment. The Ministry is guided by Sessional Paper No. 4 of 2004, and the Energy Act of 2006 as the policy and regulatory documents. These two documents are currently under review, to align with the Vision2030, the new Constitution, and global trends. Further, the Ministry has put in place measures and Strategies to ensure provision of energy, access to all. There are immense opportunities, for investment Engineering and Capacity Building.
Civil engineering enabling works for onshore oil and gas exploration-A.Ondicho, University of Eldoret
Kenya has an estimated 600MBO in the Southern Lokichar Basin of Turkana County. Development and production of these resources though a long term proposition presents vast challenges and opportunities for the Engineering profession in Kenya. Through this presentation, we will attempt to share our own experience of the civil work activities and processes undertaken to prepare a site for drilling exploratory wells. Kenya’s natural resources hold a significant potential for the country’s people. The question is what engineering roles can we play to ensure that these resources are delivered in a responsible manner?
Engineering opportunities and capacity building in renewable energy development –
Isaac N. Kiva, Energy, Ministry of Energy and Petroleum
Kenya is committed to development of renewable energy resources, which are abundantly locally available, including geothermal, wind, solar, biomass. Historically, Kenya’s electric power sub-sector has been dominated by reliance on draught prone hydro, but the government has now increased its focus on development of more reliable renewable energy sources in particular geothermal, wind and solar. This is possible due to policy, legal and institutional reforms that Government has undertaken in the Energy sector in the last 10years.
Previously, therefore, low carbon energy production in the country was primarily focused on hydropower. However, electricity shortages experienced due to prolonged droughts in recent years have shown that hydropower is extremely vulnerable to changes in weather patterns and climate change.
The Government has increased many fold its own budgetary contribution to development of renewable energy with primary focus on geothermal power development. However, the Government appreciates that it is not possible to raise all the required funds and within the desired period without the participation of both the public and private sectors.
Private sector participation is, therefore, actively encouraged through a number if avenues. Increased utilization of the environmentally friendly renewable energy technologies for industrial and domestic use will reduce the dependency on imported petroleum-based energy sources, thereby increasing security.
In addition, they will also help in prudent water management for large hydro power generation, which is affected by varying hydrology.
The role of nuclear energy for power generation in Kenya’s energy mix
Edwin Chesire & Collins Juma, Kenya Nuclear Electricity Board
Kenya’s Vision 2030 aspires to have double-digit growth rates and attain middle-income country status by 2030. On September 2014, however, Kenya effectively joined the ranks of middle-income countries, sixteen years ahead of schedule. As the country achieves the middle income status, it faces an enormous task of meeting her energy needs due to high expectations in economic and social growth. Lack o f adequate and reliable supply of energy reduces the potential for achieving major structural changes in rural and urban economies. Energy plays a critical role in the socio-economic development of a country and there is a close co-relation between economic growth and quality of life, on one hand and demand for energy on the other.
Kenya has shown commitment in including nuclear power in the electricity generation mix as advised by the National Economic and Social Council. According to International Atomic energy Agency, a country embarking on nuclear power programme should follow specific laid down guidelines which Kenya is keenly following.
In this paper, the role of nuclear energy for power generation in Kenya ‘s energy is based on Kenya’s Vision 2030,Least Cost Power Development Plan and Green House gas emission control is presented. The status and benefits foreseen of Kenya’s nuclear power programme are also discussed.
Ropeways for urban and materials transport
Eustace Mwarania, Trapos Kenya Limited
Ropeways also known as cable cars, have traditionally been used to facilitate tourism in scenic locations, difficult to access by conventional means. Recent innovations in the technology have propelled ropeways into the realm of urban mass rapid transit. Ropeways are also providing creative materials transport solutions.This paper will first consider the use of ropeways to alleviate congested segments of our cities. Examples will be given from cities that have already realized urban ropeways and an overview of such projects under development in Africa. This will then be followed by discussion of ropeways solutions in mining and port operations.
Evaluation of hydraulic check structure in controlling storm water runoff on steep road drainage: A case study of Chepterit market road drainage system, Nandi District
John K Langat & Emmanuel C. Kipkorir, School of Engineering, University of Eldoret
The component id rainfall partition that constitutes stormwater runoff damage the environment during the drainage process in a catchment and its adverse effects are realized when the flow transforms from interril into concentrated flow in channels. Current study evaluates the failure and damage caused by installation of a check structure control generates a backwater curve that leads to a hydraulic jump and loss of energy leading to sedimentation. Downstream section of the control aggravates soil erosion and structural failure due to increased head of all. The flow channel is shifted away from the original path towards the highway. Practical integrated solutions are recommended as strategies of controlling road drain damage.
Water and Sanitation
Review of water resources management in buildings- Timothy K. Kangogo, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology
With the ever increasing cost of potable water, building services engineers always strive to reduce water wastage in their designs. They also explore ways of recycling gray water and harvesting and utilizing rain water. The main focus of this paper is to review the latest technologies employed by building services engineers to minimize water wastage, to recycle gray water and to harvest and utilize rain water.
Evaluating additional sources of water in the dry season in Hagajerer area of Balambala, Sub-County, Garissa County, Kenya –Clement K. Kiptum
In many arid areas of Kenya like Garissa County, potable-piped water does not exist in rural areas. Thus, in an area like Hagajerer in Balambala Sub-county, residents rely heavily on water tankers to bring water from River Tana for their daily survival. The study aimed to establish the viable water supply option. The research methodology involved interviews as well as observations of the existing water situation. The ranking of options showed that additional trips of water tanks trucks was ranked first followed by drilling borehole, and last was pumping of water from earthpan. Therefore, the current eater crisis can be solved by increasing the number of trips made by water tank trucks while exploring the option of drilling a borehole.
Evaluation of the impact of land use change on catchment hydrology: the case of Wundanyi River catchment in Taita Hills, Kenya
Dishon Mkaya, Benedict & Peter Kundu, Smallholder Horticulture Empowerment & Promotion Unit Project, Egerton University, Nairobi.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of land use change on catchment hydrology. To do this evaluation, changes in the state of land use were mapped by classifying selected landsat satellite images based on eleven land use classes which were found in the catchment. The classifications were assessed using GEOVIS and processed in ArcView GIS with the help of ground information. The hydrologic impacts of the detected land use changes were analyzed within catchment. Results obtained shows that forests land declined by 57 per cent while agricultural land and built-up area expanded by 10 per cent and 156 per cent respectively over the study period. Evaluation of the impact of land use changes revealed that there was an increase of surface runoff from 4.12 to 110.96mm and sediment yield from 0.43 to 20.10t/ha within the catchment due to impact of the land use change.
Simulated model results showed an increase of surface runoff in the catchment with the highest being of the post change period 2001 which had severe land use changes. The results were found that they can be used by catchment stakeholders and policy makers to address challenges brought by the catchment degradation.
The results will further help in making informed decisions in selecting and developing viable catchment management options what will promote sustainable utilization of land and water resources within Wundanyi River Catchment.
Sequencing batch reactors: principles, design, operation and case studies
The world’s supply of fresh water is finite and is threatened by pollution. Domestic and industrial waste water discharge to surface or ground water is very dangerous to the environment if not controlled. Treatment of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. To choose an effective treatment system becomes of utmost importance. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial waste water. It is popular mainly because of its single-tank design and ease of automation. Actual laboratory tests from operational sites are included in this paper.
Kenyan iron ore: Grading and beneficiation using magnetic separation and floatation methods Alvin K. Bett , Eng. S.M Maranga &B.K. Rop- JKUAT
Iron ores deposits have been reported in Kenya in some counties. This ore is the main raw material in steel production. The ore cannot be utilized either locally or elsewhere in steel plants for lack of data on its quality. As a contributing factor to the nation as stipulated in the Kenya Vision 2030 the studies were carried out on samples from three counties/sites in Kenya (Taita Taveta, Tharaka Nithi and Busia). The ores were pulverized and subjected to chemical analysis to determine the iron content and the gangue materials.
The step that followed was the upgrading/ beneficiation of the ore. Magnetic separation is the main method of upgrading iron ores because of the magnetic nature of iron content. To draw a solid conclusion on the beneficiation method samples were once again analyzed a after separation to get data on the improved ore. Iron ore is typically classified as high grade (more than 64% Fe), medium grade (62 to 64%) and low grade(less than 62% Fe). Low grade iron ores cannot be used in metallurgical plants and has to be upgraded to increase the iron content. The paper focuses on the grading and beneficiation of iron ores using the magnetic separation method.
Energy management through condensate and flash steam recovery systems. A case study of Nzoia sugar company
Solomon B. Amwayi, Nzoia Sugar Co. Ltd
Condensate and flash steam recovery system is one of the most crucial energy management systems in any industry. Globally, there has been a push for green energy consumption and conservation. The cost of steam rises with the increase in energy prices and so does the value of condensate. This recovery system has been applied by Nzoia Sugar Company in a continuous energy management improvement strategy. The aim is to reduce the three tangible costs of producing steam: fuel/energy costs, boiler water make-up & sewerage treatment, and lastly, boiler water chemical treatment. The steam and condensate system flow diagram was used to determine the amount of energy savings realized. The thermodynamic calculations were applied to determine the energy requirement and savings from the entire system. There has been great energy savings from this system amounting to 201470498KJ. The amount of condensate recovered is at 158430.22Kh/HR with heat energy of 59936.1884KJ. Recommendations made if well adopted would reduce heat losses from the current 5% to 2% or below in the foreseeable future.